The “Twin Mounds Battle” probably occurred sometime during the spring of 1865, the year the Civil War ended, but was not so much an action between Unionists and Confederates as between Texas Rangers, combined with a contingent of Texas cattlemen, against cattle thieves from the North. About thirty men were killed and wounded. The Texans were trying to recapture their large herd of steers confiscated by outlaws from Kansas. This engagement brought to an end the wholesale stealing of large herds of marketable beef grazing as far south as Red River in the Chickasaw Nation, the stealing of cattle having gone on since 1862. During this three-year period, some 300,000 cattle were stolen, driven north from the Indian Territory, and sold.
The site of this battle near the Twin Mounds, in Payne County, was on the West Shawnee Trail that had developed during the Civil War, on the west edge of Cross Timbers.
From Civil War Sites in Oklahoma by Muriel H. Wright and LeRoy H. Fischer